Bisphenol A induces coronary endothelial cell necroptosis by activating RIP3/CamKII dependent pathway.
Abstract: Epidemiological studies link long term exposure to xenoestrogen Bisphenol-A to adverse cardiovascular effects. Our previous results show that BPA induces hypertension by a mechanism involving CamKII activation and increased redox stress caused by eNOS uncoupling. Recently, CamKII sustained activation has been recognized as a central mediator of programmed cell death in cardiovascular diseases, including necroptosis. However, the role of necroptosis in cardiac response to BPA had not yet been explored. Mice exposed to BPA for 16 weeks showed altered heart function, electrical conduction, and increased blood pressure. Besides, a stress test showed ST-segment depression, indicative of cardiac ischemia. The hearts exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and reduced vascularization, interstitial edema, and large hemorrhagic foci accompanied by fibrinogen deposits. BPA initiated a cardiac inflammatory response, up-regulation of M1 macrophage polarization, and increased oxidative stress, coinciding with the increased expression of CamKII and the necroptotic effector RIP3. In addition, cell death was especially evident in coronary endothelial cells within hemorrhagic areas, and Evans blue extravasation indicated a vascular leak in response to Bisphenol-A. Consistent with the in vivo findings, BPA increased the necroptosis/apoptosis ratio, the expression of RIP3, and CamKII activation in endothelial cells. Necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of necroptosis, alleviated BPA induced cardiac dysfunction and prevented the inflammatory and hemorrhagic response in mice. Mechanistically, silencing of RIP3 reversed BPA-induced necroptosis and CamKII activation in endothelial cells, while inhibition of CamKII activation by KN-93 had no effect on RIP3 expression but decreased necroptotic cell death suggesting that BPA induced necroptosis is mediated by a RIP 3/CamKII dependent pathway. Our results reveal a novel pathogenic role of BPA on the coronary circulation. BPA induces endothelial cell necroptosis, promotes the weakening of coronary vascular wall, which caused internal ventricular hemorrhages, delaying the reparative process and ultimately leading to cardiac dysfunction.
- MEDICINA