To estimate the risk of miscarriage associated to chorionic villus sampling (CVS).
This was a retrospective cohort study performed in eight fetal‐medicine units in Spain, Belgium and Bulgaria. Two populations were included: first, all singleton pregnancies attending to their first‐trimester assessment in Murcia, Spain, and second, all singleton pregnancies having a CVS following first‐trimester assessment at any of the participating centers. We used propensity score matching analysis to estimate the association between CVS and miscarriage. We compared risks of miscarriage of CVS and non‐CVS groups after propensity score matching (1:1 ratio). This procedure creates two comparable groups balancing the maternal and pregnancy characteristics that lead to CVS, in a similar way in which randomization operates in a randomized clinical trial.
The study population consisted of 22,250 participants in the non‐CVS group and 3,613 in the CVS group. The incidence of miscarriage in the CVS group was 2.1% (77/3,613), which was significantly higher than the 0.9% (207/22,250) in the non‐CVS group (p <0.001). The propensity score algorithm matched 2,122 CVS cases with 2,122 non‐CVS cases including 40 (1.9%) and 55 (2.6%) miscarriages in the CVS and non‐CVS groups, respectively (OR 0.72 [95% CI 0.48 to 1.10]; p = 0.146). However, we found a significant interaction between the CVS risk of miscarriage and the risk of aneuploidies, suggesting a different effect of the CVS for different baseline characteristics in such a way that, when the risk of aneuploidies is low, the risk after CVS increases (OR 2.87 [95% CI 1.13 to 7.30]) but when the risk is high, the risk after CVS is paradoxically reduced (OR 0.47 [95% CI 0.28 to 0.76]), presumably due to prenatal diagnosis and termination of major aneuploidies that would have otherwise resulted in spontaneous miscarriage.
The risk of miscarriage in women having a CVS is about 1% higher than in women without CVS, although this excess risk is not entirely due to the invasive procedure but to some extent the demographic and pregnancy characteristics of the patient undergoing CVS. After accounting for these risk factors and confining the analysis to low‐risk pregnancies, CVS seems to increase the risk of miscarriage about three times above the patient’s background‐risk. Although this is a substantial increase in relative terms, in pregnancies without risk factors, the risk of miscarriage after CVS will still remain low and similar to or slightly higher than that of the general population. For example, if her risk of aneuploidy is 1 in a 1,000 (0.1%), her risk of miscarriage after CVS will increase to 0.3% (0.2% higher).||spa