Perioperative management in thoracic surgery.
Abstract: Thoracic surgery has undergone significant advances in recent years related to anesthetic and surgical techniques and the prevention and management of complications related to the procedure. This has allowed improvements in patient clinical outcomes in surgeries of this kind. Despite the above, thoracic surgery, especially related to pulmonary resection, is not without risk, and is associated to considerable morbidity and mortality. Fast track or enhanced recovery after anesthesia protocols, minimally invasive surgery, and intraoperative anesthetic management improve the prognosis and safety of thoracic surgery. Patients in the postoperative period of major thoracic surgery require intensive surveillance, especially the first 24–72h after surgery. Admission to the ICU is especially recommended in those patients with comorbidities, a reduced cardiopulmonary reserve, extensive lung resections, and those requiring support due to life-threatening organ failure. During the postoperative period, intensive cardiorespiratory monitoring, proper management of thoracic drainage, aggressive pain control (multimodal analgesia and regional anesthetic techniques), nausea and multimodal rehabilitation are key elements for avoiding adverse events. Medical complications include respiratory failure, arrhythmias, respiratory infections, atelectasis and thromboembolic lung disease. The most frequent surgical complications are hemothorax, chylothorax, bronchopleural fistula and prolonged air leakage. The multidisciplinary management of these patients throughout the perioperative period is essential in order to ensure the best surgical outcomes.
Universal identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10641/2046
- MEDICINA