Predictors of macular pigment and contrast threshold in Spanish healthy normolipemic subjects (45–65 years) with habitual food intake.
Abstract: Introduction The dietary carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins, sequestered by adipose tissue, and eventually captured in the retina where they constitute macular pigment. There are no L&Z dietary intake recommendations nor desired blood/tissue concentrations for the Spanish general population. Our aim was to assess the correlation of L&Z habitual dietary intake (excluding food supplements), resulting serum concentrations and lipid profile with macular pigment optical density (MPOD) as well as the contrast sensitivity (CT), as visual outcome in normolipemic subjects (n = 101) aged 45–65. Methods MPOD was measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry, serum L&Z by HPLC, the dietary intake by a 3-day food records and CT using the CGT-1000-Contrast-Glaretester at six stimulus sizes, with and without glare. Results Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations (median) in serum: 0.361 and 0.078 μmol/L, in dietary intake: 1.1 mg L+Z/day. MPOD: 0.34du. L+Z intake correlates with their serum concentrations (rho = 0.333, p = 0.001), which in turn correlates with MPOD (rho = 0.229, p = 0.000) and with fruit and vegetable consumption (rho = 0.202, p = 0.001), but not with lutein+zeaxanthin dietary intake. MPOD correlated with CT, with and without glare (rho ranges: -0.135, 0.160 and -0.121, –0.205, respectively). MPOD predictors: serum L+Z, L+Z/HDL-cholesterol (β-coeficient: -0.91±0.2, 95%CI: -1.3,-0.5) and HDL-cholesterol (R2 = 15.9%). CT predictors: MPOD, mainly at medium and smaller visual angles (corresponding to spatial frequencies for which sensitivity declines with age) and gender (β-coefficients ranges: -0.95,-0.39 and -0.13,-0.39, respectively). Conclusion A higher MPOD is associated with a lower ratio of L+Z/HDL-cholesterol and with a lower CT (higher contrast sensitivity). The HDL-cholesterol would also act indirectly on the CT improving the visual function.
- FARMACIA