Latent Cytomegalovirus-Driven Recruitment of Activated CD4+ T Cells Promotes Virus Reactivation.
Author: Jackson, Sarah E.; Chen, Kevin C.; Groves, Ian J.; Sedikides, George X.; Gandhi, Amar; Houldcroft, Charlotte J.; Poole, Emma L.; Montanuy, Inmaculada; Mason, Gavin M.; Okecha, Georgina; Reeves, Matthew B.; Sinclair, John H.; Wills, Mark R.
Abstract: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is not cleared by the initial immune response but persists for the lifetime of the host, in part due to its ability to establish a latent infection in cells of the myeloid lineage. HCMV has been shown to manipulate the secretion of cellular proteins during both lytic and latent infection; with changes caused by latent infection mainly investigated in CD34+ progenitor cells. Whilst CD34+ cells are generally bone marrow resident, their derivative CD14+ monocytes migrate to the periphery where they briefly circulate until extravasation into tissue sites. We have analyzed the effect of HCMV latent infection on the secretome of CD14+ monocytes, identifying an upregulation of both CCL8 and CXCL10 chemokines in the CD14+ latency-associated secretome. Unlike CD34+ cells, the CD14+ latency-associated secretome did not induce migration of resting immune cell subsets but did induce migration of activated NK and T cells expressing CXCR3 in a CXCL10 dependent manner. As reported in CD34+ latent infection, the CD14+ latency-associated secretome also suppressed the anti-viral activity of stimulated CD4+ T cells. Surprisingly, however, co-culture of activated autologous CD4+ T cells with latently infected monocytes resulted in reactivation of HCMV at levels comparable to those observed using M-CSF and IL-1β cytokines. We propose that these events represent a potential strategy to enable HCMV reactivation and local dissemination of the virus at peripheral tissue sites.
Universal identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10641/2825
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