Poppers maculopathy: A quantitative review of previous literature.
Abstract: Aim To review the available literature on poppers maculopathy (PM). Material and methods Sixty-four patients (60 with bilateral and 4 with unilateral involvement), for a total of 124 eyes were reported in PubMed, Google Scholar and Embase. Patterns were analyzed according to country, age, gender, sexual orientation, HIV status, consumption habits, visual acuity at presentation (VAP), final visual acuity (VAF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results Most cases (110 eyes) of PM were reported in European countries and affected middle-aged men (only 8 eyes from female users). The median age was 38.7 years (SD = 10.5 years). Final visual acuity (Median = 0.8; Interquartile range: 0.67–1) was higher than visual acuity at presentation (Median = 0.67; Interquartile range: 0.4–0.8). Many articles lack data on sexual orientation and HIV status as this is considered very personal information. One third of the eyes (40 eyes) developed PM after a single exposure. No significant differences were found between eyes that developed PM after a single exposure and those which developed the condition after several exposures. The most commonly reported pattern was an interruption of the ellipsoid line (68 eyes). Conclusion PM is more prevalent in Europe or European ophthalmologists are more likely to diagnose PM. PM usually affects middle-aged men given that this condition generally appears with chronic exposure to poppers. VAF was higher than VAP, suggesting that this toxicity is in part reversible. Information about HIV status was not provided in most recent articles, thus it is not possible to make inferences about the possible implication of HIV drugs as cofactors for the development of this retinal toxicity.
Universal identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10641/3000
- MEDICINA