Periprosthetic joint infections in femoral neck fracture patients treated with hemiarthroplasty – should we use antibiotic-loaded bone cement?
Author: Crego-Vita, Diana; Aedo-Martín, Daniel; Garcia-Cañas, Rafael; Espigares-Correa, Andrea; Sánchez-Pérez, Coral; Ernst Berberich, Christof
Abstract: BACKGROUND Hemiarthroplasty is the most common treatment in elderly patients with displaced intra-capsular femoral neck fracture (FNF). Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most feared and frequent complications post-surgery because of the frail health status of these patients and the need for fast track surgery. Therefore, priorities should lie in effective preventive strategies to mitigate this burden. AIM To determine how much the implementation of the routine use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) as a relatively easy-to-apply amendment to the surgical practice reduces the infection rate in our hemiarthroplasty cohort. METHODS We retrospectively assessed all demographic, health status and treatment-related data of our FNF patients undergoing cemented hemiarthroplasty in the period from 2011 to 2017; 241 patients were further analyzed after exclusion of patients with cancer-related sequelae and those who died before the end of the 1-year observation period. The PJI rate as diagnosed on basis of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria 2011 was determined for each included patient and compared in function of the bone cement used for hip stem fixation. Patients were split into a group receiving a plain bone cement in the period from January 2011 to June 2013 (non-ALBC group) and into a group receiving an ALBC in the period July 2013 to December 2017 (ALBC group). Data analysis was performed with statistical software. We further calculated the cost-efficacy of the implementation of routine use of ALBC in the second group balancing the in-hospital infection related treatment costs with the extra costs of use of ALBC. RESULTS In total 241 FNF patients who received cemented hemiarthroplasty in the period from January 2011 to January 2017 were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective study. There were 8 PJI cases identified in the ALBC group among n = 94 patients, whereas 28 PJI cases were observed in the non-ALBC group among n = 147 patients. The statistical analysis showed an infection risk reduction of 55.3% (in particular due to the avoidance of chronic delayed infections) in the ALBC group (95%CI: 6.2%-78.7%; P = 0.0025). The cost-evaluation analysis demonstrated a considerable cost saving of 3.500 € per patient, related to the implementation of routine use of ALBC in this group. CONCLUSION Use of ALBC is a potent infection preventive factor in FNF patients receiving cemented hemiarthroplasties. It was further found to be highly cost-effective.
Universal identifier: https://hdl.handle.net/10641/3263
DOI: 10.5312/wjo.v13.i2.150 Crego-Vita D, Aedo-Martín D, Garcia-Cañas R, Espigares-Correa A, Sánchez-Pérez C, Berberich CE. Periprosthetic joint infections in femoral neck fracture patients treated with hemiarthroplasty – should we use antibiotic-loaded bone cement? World J Orthop 2022; 13(2): 150-159 [PMID: 35317403 DOI: 10.5312/wjo.v13.i2.150]
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