Unraveling the Role of Respiratory Muscle Metaboloreceptors under Inspiratory Training in Patients with Heart Failure.
Abstract: Exercise intolerance may be considered a hallmark in patients who suffer from heart failure (HF) syndrome. Currently, there is enough scientific evidence regarding functional and structural deterioration of skeletal musculature in these patients. It is worth noting that muscle weakness appears first in the respiratory muscles and then in the musculature of the limbs, which may be considered one of the main causes of exercise intolerance. Functional deterioration and associated atrophy of these respiratory muscles are related to an increased muscle metaboreflex leading to sympathetic–adrenal system hyperactivity and increased pulmonary ventilation. This issue contributes to increased dyspnea and/or fatigue and decreased aerobic function. Consequently, respiratory muscle weakness produces exercise limitations in these patients. In the present review, the key role that respiratory muscle metaboloreceptors play in exercise intolerance is accurately addressed in patients who suffer from HF. In conclusion, currently available scientific evidence seems to affirm that excessive metaboreflex activity of respiratory musculature under HF is the main cause of exercise intolerance and sympathetic–adrenal system hyperactivity. Inspiratory muscle training seems to be a useful personalized medicine intervention to reduce respiratory muscle metaboreflex in order to increase patients’ exercise tolerance under HF condition.
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