Early preventive treatment with Enalapril improves cardiac function and delays mortality in mice with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy type 5.
Author: Domínguez, Fernando; Lalaguna, Laura; López Olañeta, Marina; Villalba Orero, María; Padrón Barthe, Laura; Román, Marta; Bello Arroyo, Elisabet; Briceño, Ana; González López, Esther; Segovia, Javier; García Pavía, Pablo; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique
Abstract: Background: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy type 5 (ARVC5) is an inherited cardiac disease with complete penetrance and an aggressive clinical course caused by mutations in TMEM43 (transmembrane protein 43). There is no cure for ARVC5 and palliative treatment is started once the phenotype is present. A transgenic mouse model of ARVC5 expressing human TMEM43-S358L (TMEM43mut) recapitulates the human disease, enabling the exploration of preventive treatments. The aim of this study is to determine whether preventive treatment with heart failure drugs (β-blockers, ACE [angiotensin-converting enzyme] inhibitors, mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists) improves the disease course of ARVC5 in TMEM43mut mice. Methods: TMEM43mut male/female mice were treated with metoprolol (β-blockers), enalapril (ACE inhibitor), spironolactone (mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonist), ACE inhibitor + mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonist, ACE inhibitor + mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonist + β-blockers or left untreated. Drugs were initiated at 3 weeks of age, before ARVC5 phenotype, and serial ECG and echocardiograms were performed. Results: TMEM43mut mice treated with enalapril showed a significantly increased median survival compared with untreated mice (26 versus 21 weeks; P=0.003). Enalapril-treated mice also exhibited increased left ventricular ejection fraction at 4 months compared with controls (37.0% versus 24.9%; P=0.004), shorter QRS duration and reduced left ventricle fibrosis. Combined regimens including enalapril also showed positive effects. Metoprolol decreased QRS voltage prematurely and resulted in a nonsignificant decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction compared with untreated TMEM43mut mice. Conclusions: Preventive enalapril-based regimens reduced fibrosis, improved ECG, echocardiographic parameters and survival of ARVC5 mice. Early metoprolol did not show positive effects and caused premature ECG abnormalities. Our findings pave the way to consider prophylactic enalapril in asymptomatic ARVC5 genetic carriers.
- MEDICINA