Usefulness of Serial Multiorgan Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Acute Heart Failure: Results from a Prospective Observational Cohort.

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Background and Objectives: Acute heart failure (AHF) is a common disease and a cause of high morbidity and mortality, constituting a major health problem. The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact of multiorgan ultrasound in identifying pulmonary hypertension (PH), a major prognostic factor in patients admitted due to AHF, and assess whether there are significant changes in the venous excess ultrasonography (VE US) score or femoral vein Doppler at discharge. Materials and Methods: Patients were evaluated with a standard protocol of lung ultrasound, echocardiography, inferior vena cava (IVC) and hepatic, portal, intra-renal and femoral vein Doppler flow patterns at admission and on the day of discharge. Results: Thirty patients were enrolled during November 2021. The mean age was seventy-nine years (Standard Deviation–SD 13.4). Seven patients (23.3%) had a worsening renal function during hospitalization. Regarding ultrasound findings, VE US score was calculated at admission and at discharge, unexpectedly remaining unchanged or even worsened (21 patients, 70.0%). The area under the curve for the lung score was 83.9% (p = 0.008), obtaining a cutoff value of 10 that showed a sensitivity of 82.6% and a specificity of 71.4% in the identification of intermediate and high PH. It was possible to monitor significant changes between both exams on the lung score (16.5 vs. 9.3; p < 0.001), improvement in the hepatic vein Doppler pattern (2.4 vs. 2.1; p = 0.002), improvement in portal vein Doppler pattern (1.7 vs. 1.4; p = 0.023), without significant changes in the intra-renal vein Doppler pattern (1.70 vs. 1.57; p = 0.293), VE US score (1.3 vs. 1.1; p = 0.501), femoral vein Doppler pattern (2.4 vs. 2.1; p = 0.161) and IVC collapsibility (2.0 vs. 2.1; p = 0.420). Conclusions: Our study results suggest that performing serial multiorgan Point-of-Care ultrasound can help us to better identify high and intermediate probability of PH patients with AHF. Currently proposed multi-organ, venous Doppler scanning protocols, such as the VE US score, should be further studied before expanding its use in AHF patients.

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Acute heart failure, Venous congestion, Point-of-Care Ultrasound

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