Determinants of Mortality for Cancer Patients With Unscheduled Admission to the ICU: A Prospective Multicenter Study.

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Medicina intensiva
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Objectives To analyze clinical features associated to mortality in oncological patients with unplanned admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and to determine whether such risk factors differ between patients with solid tumors and those with hematological malignancies. Design An observational study was carried out. Setting A total of 123 Intensive Care Units across Spain. Patients All cancer patients with unscheduled admission due to acute illness related to the background oncological disease. Interventions None. Main variables Demographic parameters, severity scores and clinical condition were assessed, and mortality was analyzed. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed. Results A total of 482 patients were included: solid cancer (n=311) and hematological malignancy (n=171). Multivariate regression analysis showed the factors independently associated to ICU mortality to be the APACHE II score (OR 1.102; 95% CI 1.064–1.143), medical admission (OR 3.587; 95% CI 1.327–9.701), lung cancer (OR 2.98; 95% CI 1.48–5.99) and mechanical ventilation after the first 24h of ICU stay (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.09–4.73), whereas no need for mechanical ventilation was identified as a protective factor (OR 0.15; 95% CI 0.09–0.28). In solid cancer patients, the APACHE II score, medical admission, antibiotics in the previous 48h and lung cancer were identified as independent mortality indicators, while no need for mechanical ventilation was identified as a protective factor. In the multivariate analysis, the APACHE II score and mechanical ventilation after 24h of ICU stay were independently associated to mortality in hematological cancer patients, while no need for mechanical ventilation was identified as a protective factor. Neutropenia was not identified as an independent mortality predictor in either the total cohort or in the two subgroups. Conclusions The risk factors associated to mortality did not differ significantly between patients with solid cancers and those with hematological malignancies. Delayed intubation in patients requiring mechanical ventilation might be associated to ICU mortality.

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Mortality, Solid cancers, Hematological malignancy, Intensive Care Unit, Mechanical ventilation, Neutropenia