Genetic Influence on Treatment Response in Psoriasis: New Insights into Personalized Medicine.

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International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with an established genetic background. The HLA-Cw*06 allele and different polymorphisms in genes involved in inflammatory responses and keratinocyte proliferation have been associated with the development of the disease. Despite the effectiveness and safety of psoriasis treatment, a significant percentage of patients still do not achieve adequate disease control. Pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies on how genetic variations affect drug efficacy and toxicity could provide important clues in this respect. This comprehensive review assessed the available evidence for the role that those different genetic variations may play in the response to psoriasis treatment. One hundred fourteen articles were included in this qualitative synthesis. VDR gene polymorphisms may influence the response to topical vitamin D analogs and phototherapy. Variations affecting the ABC transporter seem to play a role in methotrexate and cyclosporine outcomes. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms affecting different genes are involved with anti-TNF-α response modulation (TNF-α, TNFRSF1A, TNFRSF1B, TNFAIP3, FCGR2A, FCGR3A, IL-17F, IL-17R, and IL-23R, among others) with conflicting results. HLA-Cw*06 has been the most extensively studied allele, although it has only been robustly related to the response to ustekinumab. However, further research is needed to firmly establish the usefulness of these genetic biomarkers in clinical practice.

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Psoriasis, Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics, Therapeutics, Polymorphisms, Toxicity