Selective Fetal Growth Restriction in Monochorionic Diamniotic Twins: Diagnosis and Management.

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Maternal-Fetal Medicine
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Selective fetal growth restriction (sFGR) is a severe condition that complicates 10%to 15%of allmonochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies. Pregnancies complicated with sFGR are at high risk of intrauterine demise or adverse perinatal outcome for the twins. Three clinical types have been described according to the umbilical artery (UA) Doppler pattern observed in the smaller twin: type I,when the UA Doppler is normal; type II, when there is persistent absent or reversed end-diastolic blood flow in the UA Doppler; and type III, when there is intermittent absent and/or reversed end-diastolic blood flow in the UA Doppler. Clinical evolution and management optionsmainly depend on the type of sFGR. Type I is usually associatedwith a good prognosis and is managed conservatively. There is no consensus on the management of types II and III, but in earlier and more severe presentations, fetal interventions such as selective laser photocoagulation of placental anastomoses or selective fetal cord occlusion of the smaller twinmay be considered. This reviewaims to provide updated information about the diagnosis, evaluation, follow-up, and management of sFGR in MCDA twin pregnancies.

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Twins, Monochorionic diamniotic twins, Selective fetal growth restriction, Birthweight discordance, Fetal therapy, Placenta